Child sexual abuse images

The issue in context

There continues to be much debate about the definition of child pornography and, indeed, whether it should be termed child pornography at all: the word pornography suggests consensual sexual activity, possibly for commercial gain. Many now refer to this type of material as child sexual abuse images, or child sexual abuse material (CSAM), which is indeed what they really are.
The issue here is clear: any pornographic image of a child or young person indicates that that child had been harmed or abused, while the act of sharing that image again and again further contributes to the violation and degradation of the subject of that image.
Sadly there is a market for this type of material, and the internet has made it easier for online predators (or paedophiles) to find, trade or sell such images.
Child sexual abuse images have also been linked to the grooming process. Grooming is the term used to describe the act of online predators befriending and influencing a child with the intent of sexually abusing that child. Children and young people are shown such images to ‘normalise’ such behaviours, making them more compliant to their abusers. Young people caught up in a grooming situation may also be encouraged to provide inappropriate images of themselves or perform sexual acts on webcam for the gratification of their abuser, or to act as a blackmailing tool in the future.

The legal definition of illegal material

Definitions of illegal material, and the offences that relate to them, vary from country to country. Article 9 of the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime (CETS No: 185) defines offences relating to child pornography as follows:
  • producing child pornography for the purpose of its distribution through a computer system;
  • offering or making available child pornography through a computer system;
  • distributing or transmitting child pornography through a computer system;
  • procuring child pornography through a computer system for oneself or for another person;
  • possessing child pornography in a computer system or on a computer-data storage medium.
For the purposes of the offences outlined above, the term 'child pornography' includes material that visually depicts:
  • a minor engaged in sexually explicit conduct;
  • a person appearing to be a minor engaged in sexually explicit conduct;
  • realistic images representing a minor engaged in sexually explicit conduct.

Reporting child sexual abuse images

Internet users are encouraged to help in the fight against child sexual abuse images by reporting any such content, or suspected content, to their INHOPE hotline.
INHOPE is the International Association of Internet Hotlines, supporting hotlines worldwide in their aim of eliminating illegal content on the internet. INHOPE hotlines have formal, well-established procedures for the reporting of illegal content to law enforcement agencies in their own countries, and for exchanging information with law enforcement agencies in other countries. More information about your local hotline, along with details of how to contact them, can be found on the INHOPE website.

Related issue: Sexting

A related issue here, particularly for children and young people, is sexting and this is a growing concern in schools and other organisations who work with children across the EU. Sexting is the term used to describe the sending of sexually suggestive or explicit messages or photographs, typically via mobile phone. While normally consensual in the first instance, sadly many images end up widely circulated or posted online, especially when relationships end. The originator quickly loses all control over the images, often with embarrassing, and potentially devastating consequences.
A recent EU Kids Online survey found that 15 per cent of 11- to 16-year-olds have received peer-to-peer ‘sexual messages or images [meaning] talk about having sex or images of people naked or having sex’, and 3 per cent say they have sent or posted such messages. In half of the countries across Europe, the risk of receiving sexual messages is below average, with Italy having the lowest level. The highest risk of sexting is encountered in Romania, the Czech Republic and Norway, followed by France, Estonia and Lithuania.  The findings suggest that the majority of children across countries have not encountered sexting.
Further qualitative research from the UK has shown that while young people are increasingly savvy at protecting themselves from so called ‘stranger danger’ they are having to face a new problem of ‘peer to peer’ approaches with boys (in particular) constantly demanding sexual images. Sexting from peers worries young people more than stranger danger. 
It is illegal to create, transmit or possess a sexual image of a minor. Many young people are therefore committing a crime through their actions, perhaps without knowing. This can have serious legal consequences: there have even been cases of young people being prosecuted for such activities, and/or being listed on sex offender registers.
See our articles on sexting and mobile phones for further information.

Positive teaching strategies

Teachers play a vital role in supporting pupils with sexting issues as children and young people often find it very difficult to talk about such issues with their parents. A key strategy here is to be aware of the risks, but also to keep a sense of perspective. Although stories surrounding child sexual abuse images or online grooming make big media headlines, the actual likelihood of such issues occurring is relatively low. The key thing to remember, if you or your pupils experience such images online, is to report them immediately to your INHOPE hotline as detailed above.
It is important that pupils understand the potential links between sexting and more serious issues. Many online predators use sexting images (which are sometimes available on social networking profiles) in order to blackmail victims into providing more harmful images of themselves and others.
By adopting some basic principles, you can help to ensure that your pupils remain safe when using new digital technologies, while also developing their own resilience to online risks.
It is also important to note that schools have a role to play with regards to parents too and may be able to reach out to them and provide useful information.
Use case studies as examples 
Using case studies to explain some of the problems that other pupils have faced is a powerful strategy which will provide opportunities for pupils to discuss possible issues that are bothering them.
Be aware of possible signs 
Be aware of possible signs that sexting images are being circulated around the school, such as pupils huddled around a mobile device. Ensure that the school has a robust policy which makes clear how mobile devices can be used and what the consequences are for any inappropriate conduct. Encourage all pupils to look out for each other and to report a problem. In grooming cases, young people are often unlikely to talk to an adult, but often will confide in friends. It is important to emphasise how quickly this sort of situation can get out of control and that a good friend will do the right thing and seek help from a responsible adult on behalf of the victim.
Choose your location wisely 
Where possible, encourage parents to try to locate the PC in an open space in the home. This allows them to keep a check on what’s appearing onscreen, and deal with any issues that may emerge.
Obviously internet access is no longer limited to the fixed PC, with laptops, consoles and mobile phones all providing alternative ways to get online, but hopefully any ground rules that are agreed with children in the central home location will transfer to their use elsewhere. 
Make sure that you take the time to speak to children and young people about the responsible use of web cameras and all internet-enabled devices also.
Use of parental control tools 
Work with parents to make them aware of their options.
Parental control software for filtering online activities will typically offer filtering and blocking by a range of categories, and should block illegal content by default. It is important to stress to parents that filtering alone is not a solution. Many young people see filtering as an infringement of their rights if it is done in a covert way. An open dialogue with some sensible filtering is a far more effective tool that trying to ‘spy’ on children to see what they are doing online. See the document on parental control tools for further information.
As with any technological solution to online safety, filtering tools should never be regarded as 100 per cent effective, and should always be used in combination with education and awareness-raising approaches. This will help to ensure that children and young people are able to develop their own resilience to online risks, wherever and whenever they go online. Schools and teachers need to recognise that while pupils are relatively safe when they are in school, other access points may not afford the same protections and safeguards.
Let them know it’s OK to block or disconnect 
Let your pupils know that it’s OK to block ‘buddies’ or just disconnect from the service if someone or something is making them feel uncomfortable online. Ultimately, they are in control, and have a right to make decisions about who has access to them online.
If they do choose to block or disconnect, it’s still a good idea for them to talk through the issues with a known and trusted adult: this can help children and young people to reaffirm that they acted in safe and positive way, and can bolster their self-protection skills for the future.

Know where to get help and advice if things do go wrong 

If you or your pupils do experience problems relating to online safety issues, it is important to recognise that you are not alone - there are a number of organisations that can provide help and advice. 
Many countries operate national helplines, or visit your national awareness centre website for further information on a range of online safety issues, including contacts and campaigns in your country.

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